density or unit weight for civil construction materials

What is density?

The density, of a substance’s mass, is divided into per volume. The mass of the substance is based on the material, ex; high-density materials like osmium, platinum, gold, iron, etc. low-density materials like hydrogen, foams, polymers, plastics, etc. density are denoted by “ρ (rho)”.

 ρ = m/v 

ρ = density

m = mass

v = volume 

SI unit: ton per cubic meter, kilogram per unit meter, gram per unit meter, lb. /ft3 

Conversion: 1kg/m3 = 0.624 lb. /ft3

What is the unit weight? 

The unit weight is also known as the specific weight of the materials. Unit weight is measured if the weight of a unit volume of material

Difference between density and unit weight

Both can be used interchangeably. Density is mass in volume of the material and unit weight is weight in volume of the material.

Mass and weight both are the same because gravity is almost the same everywhere on earth and we don’t know the difference. So, don’t confuse with them

The density or unit weight of construction materials

02Sand1600 to 1840
03Aggregate1200 to 1750
04Stone2850 to 2900
06Rocks1600 to 1950
07Brick masonry1900 to 1950
08Cement mortar2080
09Lime mortar1760
13Stainless steel7850 to 8000
14Soil (damp)1760
15Cement concrete block1800
16Lime600 to 650
18Teak wood650 to 850
19Sal wood900 to  1000
20Marble stone2620
21Granite stone2460 to 2800
22A.C sheet corrugated1600
24Bamboo300 to 400
25Willow wood420
26African mahogany500 to 800
27American redwood450
28European redwood500
29Spruce (Sitka)450
30Spruce (Canadian)450
31Ash (black)540
32Ash (white)670
34Teak600 to 750
35Sandy soil1800
36Clay soil1900
37Gravel soil2000
39Rocks2600 to 3000
1Cast iron7250


  1. All the above values are kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). 
  2. The values are may be changed, that all depends on material quality, quantity, and measurement

Some other materials’ density

World’s top 5 highest density material

  1. osmium – 22,570 kg/m3
  2. Iridium – 22,420 kg/m3
  3. Platinum – 21,450 kg/m3
  4. Rhenium – 21,020 kg/m3
  5. Gold – 19,320 kg/m3 

World’s top 5 lowest-density material

  1. Hydrogen – 0.0898 kg/m3
  2. Helium – 0.179 kg/m3
  3. Aero graphite – 0.2 kg/m3
  4. Metallic micro lattice – 0.9 kg/m3
  5. Aerogel – 1.0 kg/m3
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